Duration of the period between infection and first symptoms in animals depends on how far along was pregnancy at the time of infection. Thus such period is longer if the animal contracted the disease early on in its pregnancy. Miscarriage and premature birth in goats and sheep normally occur 2 weeks to 2 months after the infection, in cows five month after it and in bitches miscarriage and early birth occur between 7th and 9th week into the pregnancy. In goat and sheep herds which are exposed to brucellosis for the first time, miscarriage percentage can range from 30% up to high 80%. Aborting animals often get retained placenta. Goats and sheep normally miscarriage once but re-infection of uterus and secretion of the infectious agent can also occur during the subsequent pregnancies which normally come about normal. In both animals that miscarriage and those that did not, significant drop in lactation is reported although clinical signs of udder inflammation are every rare. Male animas can develop acute testicular inflammation which normally leads to infertility. Joint inflammations were reported in both male and female animals. In sheep and goats which are not pregnant, the disease normally develops without any clinically visible symptoms. In beef cattle, symptoms caused by B. melitensis are similar to those in sheep and goats. In dogs, infection caused by B. melitensis often goes about without clinical symptoms. However, cases of miscarriage and testicular inflammation were reported in dogs as well. In dogs, the infectious agent is quickly eliminated from the system.